The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (2024)

4 min readdecember 19, 2022

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (1)

Dalia Savy

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (2)

Haseung Jun

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (3)

Megan Revello

Vocabulary

  • Endocrine system

  • Pituitary gland

  • Hormones

  • Adrenal glands

Endocrine System

The endocrine system is our body’s chemical communication system.It operates through glands that secrete hormones through our bloodstream. These hormones travel to the specified organ and bind to the receptor, where a desired response is created. The pituitary gland, also known as the master gland👑, is located in our brain and is controlled by the hypothalamus. It's in charge of things such as metabolism, emotion, sleep, and blood pressure. As you can tell, it's one of the most important systems in our body.

Each component of the endocrine system can be located in very different locations:

  • Endocrine glands (pineal gland, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland) in your brain

  • Thyroid and parathyroids in your neck

  • Adrenal glands near your kidney

  • Pancreas near your stomach

Hormones

Many hormones operate identically to neurotransmitters; therefore, our endocrine and nervous system work closely with one another. However, since the messages of the endocrine system travel through our bloodstream, they are slower than the fast electrochemical messages of the nervous system.They also last longer than the nervous system, as hormones take a while to dissipate from our bloodstream. Hormones also play a huge role in human development.

The following are part of the endocrine system:

Endocrine GlandFunction
Pineal GlandProduces melatonin and helps regulate your circadian rhythm
HypothalamusControls the pituitary gland and is very significant in our endocrine system. It releases hormones and has a lot to do with the "4 Fs:" Fighting, Fleeing, Feeding, Mating 🍔🏃
Pituitary GlandControls growth and produces/releases hormones such as oxytocin, which promotes pair bonding and social trust.
Thyroid GlandFor AP Psych, all you should know about this gland is that it affects metabolism.
ParathyroidsThey simply regulate the level of calcium in your blood!
Adrenal GlandsThese glands trigger our flight or fight responses. They also release epinephrine (better known as adrenaline) and norepinephrine. This is connected to the automatic nervous system, the part of the nervous system that controls our involuntary responses. During a flight or fight response, the heart rate or blood pressure is affected.
PancreasRegulates the level of blood sugar🍬 and releases a hormone called insulin. It also helps with digestion!
Testis and OvariesReproductive organs in the male and female, respectively. They both release sex hormones to promote growth🌱.

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (7)

Image Courtesy of Open Source Textbook

Practice Question

The following question is from the Advanced Placement YT Channel. All credit is given to College Board.

Freddy Schmidlap knows he needs to sit down and watch some AP Review videos on Youtube that he missed. But, he is having trouble making himself do so. When he tries, he feels nervous, a bit angry, and, being a teenager, hungry. Explain how the following terms relate to Freddy's situation.

  • Epigenetics

  • Hypothalamus

  • Pancreas

Sample Responses

Epigenetics is the study of how environmental factors influence gene expression. Freddy has an identical twin, named Teddy. Freddy is really nervous about reviewing but Teddy, who is also trying to review, has an elevated stress responses. This is because as a child, he suffered traumatic events, which influenced his gene expression and made him have a different level of stress response.

The hypothalamus is a structure that controls the pituitary gland and helps regulate hunger, thirst, flight or fight, and sex. His hypothalamus is releasing a hormone that is increasing his hunger. *This will be 100% more specific once you get deeper in the course. For now, this is what the response could look like.*

The pancreas regulates insulin levels and sugar in the blood. After Freddy eats, his body will secrete insulin and maintain his regular level of blood sugar.

Multiple Choice

Which of the following glands interact(s) most directly with all of the others to help regulate body processes

A. pituitary

B. adrenals

C. parathyroids

D. thyroid

E. ovaries

💥

💥Hint: master gland ❗❓

💥💥💥💥💥Answer: A. pituitary

The pituitary gland, called the "master gland" produces hormones that activate other glands such as adrenals, parathyroids, thyroid and ovaries.

Conclusion

As you can tell, knowing the EXACT functions and memorizing minute details is not necessary (but it might help you). Mostly, what College Board is looking for is if you can make inferences 🧐 from generalized concepts. Like in the multiple choice question, you didn't necessarily have to know what the pituitary gland did; all you needed to know was that it acted as the "master gland" and you could solve the problem easily.

Adrenal Glands: These are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, response to stress and other essential functions.

Circadian Rhythm: Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a daily cycle. They respond primarily to light and darkness in an organism's environment.

Endocrine Glands: These are ductless glands that produce and release hormones directly into the bloodstream. They play key roles in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism etc.

Endocrine System: The endocrine system is a network of glands in the body that produce and secrete hormones to regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Epigenetics: Epigenetics refers to changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations to the underlying DNA sequence. These changes may last through cell divisions for the remainder of the cell's life and may also last for multiple generations without any change in the underlying DNA sequence.

Flight or Fight Response: The flight or fight response is an automatic physiological reaction to an event perceived as stressful or frightening. It prepares the body either to confront or flee from potential harm.

Hormones: Hormones are chemical substances produced in your body that control and regulate the activity of certain cells or organs. They play a crucial role in many major processes, including metabolism, growth and development, mood, sexual function, reproduction.

Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is a small region of the brain that serves as the main control center for autonomic functions. It plays a crucial role in many important functions, including releasing hormones and regulating body temperature.

Insulin: Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. It allows cells to take in sugar for energy or storage, depending on what's needed.

Metabolism: Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of cells and organisms. It's essentially your body's method of converting food into energy needed for bodily functions.

Oxytocin: Oxytocin is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland that plays a significant role in social bonding, sexual reproduction, childbirth, and the period after childbirth.

Pancreas: The pancreas is an organ in the body that plays a vital role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells. It has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar.

Parathyroids: The parathyroids are four tiny glands, located in the neck, that produce the parathyroid hormone. This hormone regulates the body's calcium levels.

Pineal Gland: A small, pea-shaped gland in the brain. Its function isn't fully understood. Researchers do know that it produces and regulates some hormones, including melatonin.

Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland located at the base of your brain. It's often referred to as "the master gland" because it controls other glands in your body making it a key player in regulating vital bodily functions and general wellbeing.

Testis and Ovaries: These are primary reproductive organs; testes in males produce sperm and testosterone while ovaries in females produce eggs (ova) and hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.

Thyroid Gland: The thyroid gland is an organ located in the front of your neck that releases hormones that control metabolism (the way your body uses energy), breathing, heart rate, nervous system functions among others.

4 min readdecember 19, 2022

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (8)

Dalia Savy

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (9)

Haseung Jun

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (10)

Megan Revello

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (11)

Dalia Savy

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (12)

Haseung Jun

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (13)

Megan Revello

Vocabulary

  • Endocrine system

  • Pituitary gland

  • Hormones

  • Adrenal glands

Endocrine System

The endocrine system is our body’s chemical communication system.It operates through glands that secrete hormones through our bloodstream. These hormones travel to the specified organ and bind to the receptor, where a desired response is created. The pituitary gland, also known as the master gland👑, is located in our brain and is controlled by the hypothalamus. It's in charge of things such as metabolism, emotion, sleep, and blood pressure. As you can tell, it's one of the most important systems in our body.

Each component of the endocrine system can be located in very different locations:

  • Endocrine glands (pineal gland, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland) in your brain

  • Thyroid and parathyroids in your neck

  • Adrenal glands near your kidney

  • Pancreas near your stomach

Hormones

Many hormones operate identically to neurotransmitters; therefore, our endocrine and nervous system work closely with one another. However, since the messages of the endocrine system travel through our bloodstream, they are slower than the fast electrochemical messages of the nervous system.They also last longer than the nervous system, as hormones take a while to dissipate from our bloodstream. Hormones also play a huge role in human development.

The following are part of the endocrine system:

Endocrine GlandFunction
Pineal GlandProduces melatonin and helps regulate your circadian rhythm
HypothalamusControls the pituitary gland and is very significant in our endocrine system. It releases hormones and has a lot to do with the "4 Fs:" Fighting, Fleeing, Feeding, Mating 🍔🏃
Pituitary GlandControls growth and produces/releases hormones such as oxytocin, which promotes pair bonding and social trust.
Thyroid GlandFor AP Psych, all you should know about this gland is that it affects metabolism.
ParathyroidsThey simply regulate the level of calcium in your blood!
Adrenal GlandsThese glands trigger our flight or fight responses. They also release epinephrine (better known as adrenaline) and norepinephrine. This is connected to the automatic nervous system, the part of the nervous system that controls our involuntary responses. During a flight or fight response, the heart rate or blood pressure is affected.
PancreasRegulates the level of blood sugar🍬 and releases a hormone called insulin. It also helps with digestion!
Testis and OvariesReproductive organs in the male and female, respectively. They both release sex hormones to promote growth🌱.

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (14)

Image Courtesy of Open Source Textbook

Practice Question

The following question is from the Advanced Placement YT Channel. All credit is given to College Board.

Freddy Schmidlap knows he needs to sit down and watch some AP Review videos on Youtube that he missed. But, he is having trouble making himself do so. When he tries, he feels nervous, a bit angry, and, being a teenager, hungry. Explain how the following terms relate to Freddy's situation.

  • Epigenetics

  • Hypothalamus

  • Pancreas

Sample Responses

Epigenetics is the study of how environmental factors influence gene expression. Freddy has an identical twin, named Teddy. Freddy is really nervous about reviewing but Teddy, who is also trying to review, has an elevated stress responses. This is because as a child, he suffered traumatic events, which influenced his gene expression and made him have a different level of stress response.

The hypothalamus is a structure that controls the pituitary gland and helps regulate hunger, thirst, flight or fight, and sex. His hypothalamus is releasing a hormone that is increasing his hunger. *This will be 100% more specific once you get deeper in the course. For now, this is what the response could look like.*

The pancreas regulates insulin levels and sugar in the blood. After Freddy eats, his body will secrete insulin and maintain his regular level of blood sugar.

Multiple Choice

Which of the following glands interact(s) most directly with all of the others to help regulate body processes

A. pituitary

B. adrenals

C. parathyroids

D. thyroid

E. ovaries

💥

💥Hint: master gland ❗❓

💥💥💥💥💥Answer: A. pituitary

The pituitary gland, called the "master gland" produces hormones that activate other glands such as adrenals, parathyroids, thyroid and ovaries.

Conclusion

As you can tell, knowing the EXACT functions and memorizing minute details is not necessary (but it might help you). Mostly, what College Board is looking for is if you can make inferences 🧐 from generalized concepts. Like in the multiple choice question, you didn't necessarily have to know what the pituitary gland did; all you needed to know was that it acted as the "master gland" and you could solve the problem easily.

Adrenal Glands: These are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, response to stress and other essential functions.

Circadian Rhythm: Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a daily cycle. They respond primarily to light and darkness in an organism's environment.

Endocrine Glands: These are ductless glands that produce and release hormones directly into the bloodstream. They play key roles in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism etc.

Endocrine System: The endocrine system is a network of glands in the body that produce and secrete hormones to regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Epigenetics: Epigenetics refers to changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations to the underlying DNA sequence. These changes may last through cell divisions for the remainder of the cell's life and may also last for multiple generations without any change in the underlying DNA sequence.

Flight or Fight Response: The flight or fight response is an automatic physiological reaction to an event perceived as stressful or frightening. It prepares the body either to confront or flee from potential harm.

Hormones: Hormones are chemical substances produced in your body that control and regulate the activity of certain cells or organs. They play a crucial role in many major processes, including metabolism, growth and development, mood, sexual function, reproduction.

Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is a small region of the brain that serves as the main control center for autonomic functions. It plays a crucial role in many important functions, including releasing hormones and regulating body temperature.

Insulin: Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. It allows cells to take in sugar for energy or storage, depending on what's needed.

Metabolism: Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of cells and organisms. It's essentially your body's method of converting food into energy needed for bodily functions.

Oxytocin: Oxytocin is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland that plays a significant role in social bonding, sexual reproduction, childbirth, and the period after childbirth.

Pancreas: The pancreas is an organ in the body that plays a vital role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells. It has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar.

Parathyroids: The parathyroids are four tiny glands, located in the neck, that produce the parathyroid hormone. This hormone regulates the body's calcium levels.

Pineal Gland: A small, pea-shaped gland in the brain. Its function isn't fully understood. Researchers do know that it produces and regulates some hormones, including melatonin.

Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland located at the base of your brain. It's often referred to as "the master gland" because it controls other glands in your body making it a key player in regulating vital bodily functions and general wellbeing.

Testis and Ovaries: These are primary reproductive organs; testes in males produce sperm and testosterone while ovaries in females produce eggs (ova) and hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.

Thyroid Gland: The thyroid gland is an organ located in the front of your neck that releases hormones that control metabolism (the way your body uses energy), breathing, heart rate, nervous system functions among others.

The Endocrine System - AP Psych Study Guide 2024 | Fiveable (2024)
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